The History of  
Hinchingbrooke House    

the Hart of Hinchingbrooke



oliver cromwell

edward montagu


fourth earl

5th-7th earls

Eighth Earl

ninth earl





Census Returns for Hinchingbrooke
who was where, when ....

What is a Census?

A census is an official count of the inhabitants of a country.Now it can give us a snapshot of who lived at Hinchingbrooke at ten year intervals.

Censuses in the UK in the late 19th century were used to calculate taxation and work out numbers of people in towns and cities; then the original data sheets were destroyed.
However from April 1841 a census was taken for the whole of the UK every ten years. The data was analysed to give numbers of people, their ages and needs, then the original data was locked away from the public for 100 years. This protects private information and ensures people can give an honest answer to the census questions. The public will not see the information you give until you are dead.


What does the census tell us?

The 1841 census tells us the name of each person living in the house, their age, occupation and whether they were born in that county. It is an excellent example of original source data.

The 1851 census tells us all the above but adds "relationship to householder", "condition" (meaning married, unmarried or widowed) and "where born" by county and town or village.

This pattern continues into the twentieth century when increasing numbers of questions give a very detailed description of the people, their relatives, religion, ethnic background etc.

1841 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke ref 107/455/4
Name Age Occupation Born in county
Jane BUMCUMBE 25 Female servant No
Mary WALTON 25 Female servant No
Catherine SNERY 20 Female servant Yes
Charlotte FRETWELL 25 Female servant No
Mary CAIN 20 Female servant No
William MUSK 25 Male servant Yes
George MANN 25 Gardener No

Evidently the Earl and his family were not in residence.We know that John William, the 7th earl came of age in 1832.

1851 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke ref HO 107/1748/566
Name Reln to H Cond Age Occupation Where Born
John Wm MONTAGUE H M 39 Lord Lieutenant of the County London
Lady SANDWICH Wf M 38 - London
Lady Adelaide PAGET Re U 30 - Sts
Mad'le D'ACCERD Go - 22 Governess ALWAD
Dr MELLOR - - 35 Tutor Germany
HINCHINGBROOK S - 11 Scholar London
Victor MONTAGUE S - 9 Scholar London
Sidney MONTAGUE S - 8 Scholar London
Oliver MONTAGUE S - 6 Scholar HUN Huntingdon
Emily MONTAGUE D - 4 Scholar London
Florence MONTAGUE D - 2 - London
Charles BOLTON Ser M 41 Butler HRT Ware
Peter FRADIO Ser U 45 Cook France
William KNIGHTON Ser M 35 Under butler HUN Huntingdon
William EMPLETON Ser U 26 Footman HRT Brickland
Henry DIGHTON Ser U 18 Usher of the hall HUN Huntingdon
James BYFIELD Ser U 14 Page HUN Huntingdon
Ann HARVEY Ser U 28 Household Servant SSX Horsham
Lucy LOVING Ser U 38 Household Servant NTH Peterboro
Anne CORNISH Ser U 28 Household Servant HUN Huntingdon
Jane CORNISH Ser U 16 Household Servant HUN Huntingdon
Maria BAILEY Ser U 24 Household Servant STS Long
Maria UNWIN Ser U 23 Household Servant ESS GT BRANSTED
Mary BUBE Ser U 27 Household Servant HAM Clum
Mary HUGHES Ser U 28 Household Servant HUN Gt Gidding
Eliza SMITH Ser U 19 Household Servant DBY DERBY
Martha HAMER Ser U 27 Household Servant NFK ---
Jane GWINE Ser U 35 Household Servant WLS Welchpool
Charlotte HONE Ser U 42 Household Servant NFK ---
Charlotte WITERAGE Ser U 26 Household Servant DOR Blandford
Susan HOWELL Ser U 17 Household Servant HUN Diddington
Samuel SMITH Ser U 28 Stableman HUN Huntingdon
James SMITH Ser U 25 Stableman HUN Huntingdon
Thomas DAWSON Ser U 20 Head Gardener SCT AYRESHIRE
William SIMMS Ser U 19 Gardener BDF MUGERHANGER
Robert JERVIS Ser U 18 Gardener HUN Huntingdon


What does this census return tell us about the strict hierarchy of the Country House in 1851?
• Look at the order in which the form has been filled in, with important people at the top and less important people at the bottom.
• Count the number of servants and the number of family members
• Why are there no married female servants?

• Why are so many servants needed?


1861 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's
Name Reln to H Cond Age
Where Born
Countess Dowager of Sandwich Mother W 80
Viscountess Sydney Sister in law M 57
Armar Corry cousin un 25
Clerk, Foreign Office
Hon Oliver Montague son un 16
Vicount Hinchingbrook son un 22
Lieutenant Grenadier Guards
Lady Emily Montagu daughter un 14
Lady Florence Montagu daughter un 12
Augusta Jeschhowely Governess un 39
Prussia, Berlin
William Knighton servant M 45
Butler & Steward
Hunts, Sawtry
Phillis Wright servant un 42
Suffolk, Saxmundham
Maria Bessard servant un 26
Youngladies Maid
Hannah Hardcastle servant un 28
Ladies Maid
Yorks Boroughbridge
Belsey Scott servant un 23
Laundry Maid
Devon Chapford
Susannah Welsh servant un 31
Laundry Maid
Mdx Shoreditch
Caroline Hough servant un 21
Scullery Maid
Warwick Hampton Lucy
Jane Tipping servant un 25
Kitchen Maid
Eliza King servant un 22
Still Room Maid
Mdx Kingsland
Kate Radcliffe servant un 21
House Maid
Notts Mansfield
Hannah Truse servant un 27
House Maid
Hereford Eastnor
?Ellen Hill servant un 32
House Maid
Lancashire Bold
Emma Hammond servant un 21
School Room Maid
Francis Hewson servant un 25
Under Butler
Yorkshire Bedale
William Lenton servant un 18
Hunts Brampton
Robert Carter servant un 28
Scotland Peebleshire
Mary Minton servant un 20
Dairy Maid
Dorset Hook
Marianne Widnes servant un 24
Ladies Maid
William ... Goddard servant M 29
Wilts Salisbury
Emma Herbert servant M 31
Henry Cadogan visitor   2
Henry Vickers servant un 26
Lincs Gainsborough
Richard Papworth servant M 33
Cambs Madingley
Frederic Parsons servant un 27
Frederic Browning servant un 19
George Marshall servant un 27 Helper Hunts Stukeley

Three additional houses are shown on the estate: Gardeners House (Head Gardener plus 2 under gardeners); Hinchingbrooke Lodge (3 people); Park Cottage (4 people)

1871 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke  
Name Reln to H Cond Age
Where Born
Blanche Sandwich Wife M 39 Countess Surrey Oatland Weybridge
Florence Montagu Daughter Un 22 Earl's Daughter Mdx London St James
Marianne Knight servant Un 38 Housekeeper Suffolk Whickham Mkt
Jane Drouford servant Un 40 Lady's Maid Mdx Marylebone
Sophia Schmidt servant Un 27 Lady's Maid Denmark, Copenhagen
Charlotte Horn servant Un 44 Lady's Maid Somerset Bath Littleton
Elizabeth King servant Un 19 Lady's Maid Leicester, Durrendon
Emily Burden servant Un 32 Housemaid Sussex Bookam
Sarah Ann Ray servant Un 22 Housemaid Hants, Midshead
Martha Smith servant Un 24 Housemaid Norfolk, Gt Yarmouth
Jane Furness servant Un 21 Stillroom Maid Middx Chelsea
Sarah Elms servant Un 34 Dairy Maid Dorset Vale of Nubeck
Jane Brewer servant Un 21 Kitchen Maid Som, Ham
Sophia Hopgood servant Un 21 Scullery Maid Hants Andover
William Knighton servant Mar 55 Butler Hunts, Sawtry
Isaac Stubbs servant Un 24 Under Butler Norfolk Thurlton
John Plane servant Un 24 Footman Norfolk Norwich
William Burrell servant Un 23 Footman Essex Gt Burstead
George Wright servant Un 22 Usher Hunt Brampton
Leonard Hawkes servant Un 22 Groom Hunt Brampton
James Storey servant Un 26 Groom Middx, Hounslow
Edward Torey servant Un 22 Helper Berks Busket


1881 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke  
Name Reln to H Cond Age
Where Born
John William Montagu Earl of Sandwich H M 69 Peer Lord Lieutenant London St Georges
Blanche Countess of Sandwich Wife M 49 Peeress Surrey Weybridge
Elizabeth Alderson servant Un 37 Housekeeper Yorks Richmond
Jane Dunford servant Un 50 Ladys Maid London Marylebone
Margaret Sanderson servant Un 26 House Maid Yorks Richmond
Elizabeth Howard servant Un 29 House Maid Hunts Huntingdon
Annie McKay servant Un 27 House Maid London Marylebone
Elizabeth Moore servant Un 25 Laundry Maid Worcs Evesham
Sarah Holmes servant Un 18 Laundry Maid Worcs Broadway
Annie Bartlett servant Un 26 Kitchen Maid Warwick
Jane Barfield servant Un 48 Scullery Maid Mdx Hackney
Elizabeth Richards servant Un 26 Stillroom Maid Mdx Bow
Susan Harlow servant Un 49 Stillroom Maid Hunts Godmanchester
Ada White servant Un 27 Dairy Maid Devon Exeter
Henry Cooper servant Un 37 Steward Hunts Brampton
Felix Dazar servant Un 43 Cook France Paris
Horace Holman servant Un 26 Valet Kent Whickham
Robert Wm Renals servant Un 27 Under Butler Leics Loughborough
William Dale servant Un 27 Footman Kent Canterbury
George Warrington servant Un 22 Footman Hunts Brampton
Edward Stokes servant Un 25 Groom Hunts Abbotsley
Charles Hobbs servant Un 18 Usher Hunts Little Stukeley
William Stringer servant Un 30 Helper Yorks Offingham
Tom Bird servant Un 20 Helper Hunts Great Stukeley


1891 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke ref HO107/
Name Reln to H Cond Age Occupation Where Born
Edward, Earl of SANDWICH H - 51 Peer.Retired Army Officer. Colonel Militia. Farmer MDX St James Westminster
Charles NEEDHAM Vis M 46 Officer in Army. Col-1st Life Guards MDX Twickenham
Amy NEEDHAM Vis M 37   Germany. Baden
Albert Edward PAGET Vis - 11 Living on own means London St Georges Hanover Square
Hon Frederick CADOGAN Vis Wd 69 Barrister at Law - retired. Living on own means France, Paris
Robert Wm DUFF Vis M 59 M. General, Army, retired. Living on own means MDX Marylebone
Beatrice DUFF Vis M 55   MDX St James Westminster
Beatrice C DUFF Vis - 24   SRY Seale
Hon Evelyn PAGET Vis - 41 Maid of Honour to HM The Queen. Living on own means London
Alfred YORKE Vis - 19   London Marylebone
Walter C PERRY Vis M States he is (or she is) returned at 5 Manchester Square, London and declined to answer here
Evelyn PERRY Vis M
Henry COOPER Sv - 46 Domestic Servant, Butler HUN Brampton
William HOPLEY Sv - 28 Domestic Servant, Valet HEF Letten
William SYRETT Sv - 24 Domestic Servant, Footman London St Pancras
William FREESTONE Sv - 21 Domestic Servant, Groom NTH Peterboro
Towers ASHCROFT Sv - 19 Domestic Servant, Footman HUN Brampton
Thomas HURST Sv - 30 Domestic Servant, Under butler OXF Lt Milton
James BARRON Vis M 36 Domestic Servant, Valet Elgin, Rothes
Thomas HUMPHREY Sv - 21 Domestic Servant, Groom HUN Gt Stukeley
Edward BLOOMFIELD Vis - 17 Domestic Servant, Footman London Chelsea
Lucien DROGENT Vis - 26 Domestic Servant, Valet France Cannes
Elizabeth BLACK Sv - 38 Domestic Servant, Housekeeper KEN Teynham
Sarah ROGERS Sv - 38 Domestic Servant, Cook HAM Romsey
Phoebe GRIMWOOD Sv - 28 Domestic Servant, Laundrymaid SFK Whepstead
Anne CLOUGH Sv - 43 Domestic Servant, Dairymaid YKS Hornby Bedale
Emily HITCHCOCK Sv - 24 Domestic Servant, Stillroom Maid OXF Middleton
Harriet BLACKMAN Sv - 19 Domestic Servant, Laundrymaid WOR Middle
Mary BRAY Sv - 23 Domestic Servant, Housemaid MDX Lambeth
Alice LANCASTER Sv - 21 Domestic Servant, Kitchenmaid MDX Hounslow
Emily TYLER Sv - 23 Domestic Servant, Housemaid HEF Bolston
Elizabeth SHEPHERD Sv - 21 Domestic Servant, Housemaid LEI Conglestone
Lily CLARK Sv - 20 Domestic Servant, Scullery Maid CAM Kingston
Jane NICHOLS Vis - 22 Domestic Servant, Ladys Maid MDX Chiswick
Mary Ann BARNES Vis - 41 Domestic Servant, Ladys Maid WIL Lynham
Matilda EVANS Vis - 36 Domestic Servant, Ladys Maid PEM Haverford
Albert TAIT Sv - 29 Domestic Servant, Footman SRY Brockham


• Census returns have not always been filled in accurately by the people living at an address. Why might this be?
• Why might Walter and Evelyn Perry and Martha Williamson have not wanted to give further details?

• "Living on own means" - what does this mean? How can they do it?
• Looking at the "where born" column, which areas of London seem to be the richest, and which the poorest? Is that still true today?

1901 Census. Huntingdon St Mary's Hinchingbrooke  
Name Reln to H Cond Age Occupation Where Born
Harry Hill Servant Un 20 Odd Man Hunts Brampton
Henry Cooper Head Un 56 House Steward Hunts Brampton
Charles Gordon Falcon Visitor Un 31 Captain Royal Engineers Cheshire Knutsford
Albert Roselpries Visitor Un 31 Captain Brabants Colonial Division South Africa Port Elizabeth
Elizabeth Howe Servant Un 40 Housekeeper Dorset Piddleton
Harriet Jordan Servant Un 27 Laundry Maid Staffords Elmhurst
Florence Putner Servant Un 19 Laundry Maid Middlesex Lambeth
Charlotte Gilbert Servant Un 29 Stillroom Maid Northants Burghley
Ann Clough Servant Un 53 Dairy Maid Yorks Hornbey
Sarah Ann Taylor Servant Un 26 Kitchen Maid Hants Ramsey St Mary's
Louisa Smith Servant Un 19 Scullery Maid Rutlandshire Kelton
Elizabeth Wass Servant Un 27 House Maid Notts Norwell
Lilly Hagram Servant Un 21 House Maid Middlesex Bayswater
Mary Usher Servant Un 19 House Maid Hunts Buckden
John Lissenden Servant Un 32 Under Butler Kent Malling
George .. Gregor Servant Un 28 Footman Scotland
George Andrews Servant Un 23 Footman Somerset Shepton Mallet
Charles Ernest Dale Servant Un 26 Footman Oxfordshire Addebury
Hinchingbrooke Stables
George Papworth Head M 37 Coachman Hunts Alconbury
Mary Ann Papworth Wife M 37 - Hunts Brampton
Edward George Papworth Son Un 9 - Hunts Hinchingbrooke
Arthur George Ashcroft Relation Un 18 Groom Hunts Brampton
William Sattman Servant Un 20 Groom Hunts Grafham
George Henry Gale Servant Un 19 Groom Hunts St Neots
Hinchingbrooke Farm
William Rowell Head Widower 43 Farm Bailiff Hunts Abbott Ripton
Sydney William Rowell Son Un 9 - Huntingdon
Frederick Stanley Rowell Son Un 8 - Huntingdon
Florence Wakefield Servant Un 30 Housekeeper Cambs Little Gransden
Hinchingbrooke Gardens
James Barston Head Un 32 Head Gardener Aston on Trent
R Stevens Head Un 21 Second Gardener Berkshire
James Rymill - Un 17 Third Gardener Oxford Hawley
William Dawe - Un 21 Fourth Gardener Dorsetshire
Thomas Hill - Un 18 Gardener Hunts Brampton

The Hinchingbrooke Domestic staff photographed in 1906.
Can we put names from the 1901 census to the picture from 1906?
A similar picture taken in 1909 featured 35 staff and there are 32 female servants in the later picture below.
Notice how the social ranking of the servants is shown by the sitting and standing positions.

1911 census

1911 Census. Huntingdon Hinchingbrooke House
Name Relationship to Head Marital Status Sex Age in 1911 Occupation DomesticWhere born
Brownlow, Jeanie Head Widow F 44 Domestic Sterlingshire Town
Clough, Ann Servant Single F 62 Domestic Yorkshire, Awswell
Lamb, Ellen Servant Single F 45 Domestic Kent, Hawkbred
Lowes, Ellen Servant Single F 23 Domestic Durham, Darlington
Mullard, Elizabeth Servant Single F 30 Domestic Staffordshire, High Off [??]
Mead, Alice Servant Single F 23 Domestic Bedfordshire, Liddington
Man, Flora Servant Single M 24 Domestic Invernesshire, Liddington [??]
Mann, George Servant Single M 16 Domestic Devonshire, Plymouth
Arn, Tom Servant Single M 17 Domestic Derbyshire, Derby
Lee, William Servant Single M 24 Domestic Huntingdonshire, Brampton
Hinchingbrooke Cottage
Stevens, William Head Married M 53 Farm Bailiff Little Stukeley, Huntingdon
Stevens, Francis Wife Married 26 yrs M 56   Abbotts Ripton, Huntingdon
Stevens, Thomas Son Single M 18 Poultryman Hinchingbrooke, Huntingdon
Stevens, Florence Daughter Single F 13 School Hinchingbrooke, Huntingdon
The Cottage (copy of original)
Edward G M, Earl of Sandwich Head Single M 71 Peer St. James London
Lina Mary Scott Gatty Niece Married 9yrs F 38 Private Means St. James London
Sheila Grant-Suttie Visitor Single F 32 Private Means London
Frank Abbot Servant Single M 25 Valet Domestic Brigstock, Northants
Annie Howley Servant Cook Single F 28 Cook Domestic Wandsworth Surrey
Olive Dale Servant Single F 21 Ladysmaid Domestic Sutton Coldfield Warwickshire
Alice Emily Fry Servant Single F 30 Housemaid Domestic Marshfield Gloucestershire
Nelly Smith Servant Single F 21 Housemaid Domestic All Saints Huntingdon
Louisa Ellen Todman Servant Single F 23 Kitchen Maid Domestic Willesden Middlesex
Edith Turpin Servant Single F 19 Scullery Maid Domestic Islington Middlesex
Walter Eddy Servant Single M 32 Butler Domestic Devonshire Gittisham
Alfred Hunter Servant Single M 21 General Servant Domestic Hunting M Brampton
Edith Francis Servant Single F 24 Ladysmaid Domestic Kent Blean
Front Lodge
Gilson, William Head Married M 29 Farm Labourer Huntingdon, Kings Ripton
Gilson, Ellen Wife Married 4 yrs F 30   Huntingdon, Godmanchester
Gamekeeper's Lodge
Longman, Joe Head Married M 35 Gamekeeper Tarrant, Keynstone, Dorset
Longman, Bertha Wife Married 13 yrs F 34   Mappowder, Dorset
Longman, Eveline Daughter Single F 11 School Tarrant, Keynstone, Dorset
Longman, Winifred Daughter Single F 7   Hinchingbrooke, Huntingdon
Longman, Iris Daughter Single F 3 mths   Hinchingbrooke, Huntingdon
Garden House
Gilson, Thomas James Head Married M 28 Housekeeper Kings Ripton, Hunts
Gilson, Louisa Wife Married 7 years F 29   Gamlingay, Cambs
Motor Cottage
Woodbine, William Leamon Head Married 3 yrs M 30 Chauffeur Domestic Great Witchingham, Norfolk
Woodbine, Mona Mary Wife Married 3 yrs F 32   Norwich, Norfolk
Red Lodge
Warren, Harry Head Married 25 yrs M 47 Carpenter House Huntingdon Brampton
Warren Susannah Wife Married 25 yrs F 48   Huntingdon, Water Newton
Warren, John Son Single M 18 Apprentice Engineer Huntingdon Brampton
Warren, Tom Son Single M 13 School Huntingdon St Mary's
Gaunt, George Boarder Single M 50 Blacksmith Estate Huntingdon, Werrington

The 1911 census for England and Wales was taken on the night of Sunday 2 April, 1911.
The count included all individual households, plus institutions such as prisons, workhouses, naval vessels and merchant vessels, and it also attempted to make an approximate count of the homeless.

The naming of the homes seems to have changed betwen the 1901 and the 1911 censuses.

This photograph below was believed to have been taken between 1912 and 1916 when Laura Houghton (second row back, second from right) was a servant at Hinchingbrooke. Clearly this is a less formal photograph than the earlier one of 1906, perhaps reflecting the social status of the servants and also demonstrating the large numbers of staff involved in maintaining a house like Hinchingbrooke..

servants 1912

Does anyone know any more details? There are no known lists remaining of those who worked in the House. Laura Houghton would have been aged 15 to 21 when she worked there, in service until she married at the age of 21, starting in work at a level "lower than a housemaid". Linda Huckle, her granddaughter, recalls stories of Laura scrubbing floors until her hands bled.

• How many servants appear on more than one census return? What does this tell us about the turn-over of servants at an Edwardian country house like Hinchingbrooke? Who stayed for many years and who moved on?

• Note the varied birthplaces of the servants, indicating the extent of travel around the country in search of employment

• Note that there are 40 servants in 1911 tending to a single old man, his niece and his estate. A selfish life of privilege or a vital source of employment for the lower classes? Discuss!

Other Links

Census returns for Hinchingbrooke










Public Records Office

PRO Censuses

A servant's day